Most of the anthropogenic transformations on Earth, which have brought humanity to a fatal point, are carried out by business and government, acting according to the rules of the capitalist economy (“money-commodity-money plus”).
Today, in the charters of firms, the main goal, according to the law, is "PROFIT DERIVATION". And there is no need to take on obligations “not to harm people's health”, “not to harm nature”, to take care of future generations, etc. A similar approach is taken by the authorities of different levels, who care most about filling the budget, investments and new jobs.
At the same time, very often, the goals are achieved due to the deterioration of the ecology of the environment and the health of the population.
We need to change this state of affairs before it is too late.
If we want to survive, the Economy must be Ecological and no other!
EcoEco! Ecopower!


Main articles: The Gulf of FinlandRivers and canals of St. PetersburgIslands of Saint Petersburg and List of bridges in Saint Petersburg

The total length of all watercourses on the territory of St. Petersburg reaches 282 km, and their water surface is about 7% of the entire area of the city. During the existence of the city hydrological network has undergone significant changes. Its construction in low swampy place required the construction of canals and ponds for drainage. The excavated earth was used to raise the surface. At the end of the 19th century river delta Neva consisted of 48 rivers and channels forming 101 islands. Over time (as the city was built), many reservoirs lost their original meaning, became polluted and filled up. In the 20th century, as a result of the backfilling of channels, channels and branches, the number of islands was reduced to 42.

Main waterway of the city: Neva River, which flows into the Neva Bay Gulf of Finlandrelated to Baltic Sea. The most significant delta arms are: Big and Malaya NevaBigMedium and Malaya Nevki, FontankaWashingYekateringofkaKrestovkaKarpovkaZhdanovkaSmolenkaBuckleKronverk Strait; channels: sea channelbypass channelGriboyedov CanalKryukov channel. Basic tributaries Neva within the city: on the left: IzhoraSlavMurzinka, right: OhtaBlack River. The largest islands in the Neva Delta: VasilievskyPetrogradskyKrestovskyDecembrists. The largest island in the Gulf of Finland: Kotlin[25]. About 800 bridges are thrown across the water bodies of the city (excluding bridges in the territories of industrial enterprises), including 218 pedestrian and 22 adjustable. Of this number, a part is located in places that were once suburbs of St. Petersburg: v Kronstadt  - five, in Pushkin — 54, Peterhof — 51, Pavlovsk — 16, Lomonosov  - seven bridges. Longest Bridge: Big Obukhovsky (cable-stayed) bridge  across the Neva River (total length of the bridge crossing 2824 m), the widest bridge:  blue bridge on the river Moyka (99.5m).

A significant part of the city (islands of the Neva delta, a wide strip between Gulf of Finland and line Baltic Railway, left bank do Fontanka etc.) is located at altitudes not exceeding 1.2 - 3 m above sea level. These areas are at risk floodsrelated mainly to wind surge east Gulf of Finland. The catastrophic nature of the floods wore November 7 (19), 1824 (water level rise above ordinary  at 4.21 m) and  September 23, 1924 (3.69m). At the time of this flood, about 70 km² of the city was flooded. For more than three hundred years of history of St. Petersburg, according to various sources, about 300 floods have been registered. Last dangerous flood (water rose to 187 cm from Kronstadt footstock) was November 16 2010, very dangerous (220 cm) - January 10, 2007[26]. In August 2011, entered service a complex of protective structures of St. Petersburg from floods  (the so-called "Dam") in the Neva Bay Gulf of Finland. For the first time, it was fully activated during the flood on December 28, 2011. If the dam had not been closed, then, according to experts, the water in Neva  this time would have risen to 281 cm (the flood would have been in the top five largest in the entire history of observations), a fifth of the city could have gone under water. Thus, damage was prevented, which could amount to about 25 billion rubles.[27]. During the first 10 years of operation of the dam, 26 floods were prevented with potential damage in the amount of 120 billion rubles (with a total construction cost of the entire complex of 106 billion rubles)[28].


View on Spit of Vasilyevsky IslandPeter and Paul FortressPalace Bridge via Neva c781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_White Nights. 0:35 July 3, 2010


Main article: Climate of St. Petersburg

Climate moderate, transitional from temperate continental cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_temperate maritime. This type of climate is explained by the geographical location and atmospheric circulation, specific for Leningrad region. This is due to the relatively small amount entering the earth's surface and into the atmosphere sunny heat[29]. By Köppen climate classification it is classified as humid continental. The influence of Baltic Sea cyclones results in warm, humid, and short summers and long, cold, wet winters.[thirty].

Total inflow solar radiation here is 1.5 times less than in the south Ukraine, and half as much as in Central Asia. The city has an average of 62 sunny days per year. Therefore, for most of the year, days with cloudy overcast weather and diffused lighting prevail.[29]. The length of the day varies from 5 hours 51 minutes on December 22 to 18 hours 50 minutes on June 22. The so-called  are observed in the cityWhite Nights  (it is generally accepted that they come on May 25-26 and end on July 16-17), when the sun drops below the horizon by no more than 9 ° and evening twilight practically merges with morning. In total, the duration of the white nights is more than 50 days[31]. The annual amplitude of the sums of direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface with a clear sky is from 25 MJ/m² in December to 686 MJ/m² in June. Cloudiness reduces on average per year the arrival of total solar radiation by 21%, and direct solar radiation by 60%. The average annual total radiation is 3156 MJ/m²[32].

Frequent change is characteristic air masseslargely due to cyclonic activity. In summer, western and north-western winds prevail, in winter - western and south-western[29]. Petersburg weather stations have data since 1722. The highest temperature recorded in St. Petersburg for the entire observation period: +37.1 °C[33], and the lowest: -35.9 °C[34].

Climate of St. Petersburg (normal 1991-2020, records for the entire observation period - from 1881 to 2021)


Absolute maximum, °C8,710,215,325,333,035,935,337,130,421,012,310,937.1

Average maximum, °C−2.5−−0.59.6

Average temperature, °C−4.8−5−15.211.516.119.117.412.46.20.9−2.56.3

Average minimum, °C-7.2-7.6-

Absolute minimum, °C-35.9-35.2-29.9-21.8-, 9

Precipitation rate, mm463636374769848757645651670

Source: [35][36][37][38]



Main article: Gardens and parks of St. Petersburg

Green spaces of St. Petersburg and its suburbs, together with the water surface, occupy about 40% of the urban area (according to 2002 data). By 2000, there were about 65 m² of plantings per inhabitant of the city. The total area of green spaces exceeds 31 thousand hectares, including 68 parks, 166 gardens, 730 squares, 232 boulevards, 750 green streets[39]. City parks are located in various landscape conditions: on lower and upper terraces coasts Gulf of Finland (parks StrelnaPeterhof and Lomonosov), moraine plain (parks the city of Pushkin), kame hills (Shuvalovsky Park, Aspen Grove). A number of parks are based on natural forests, which still retain their species composition (SosnovkaSpecific Park). Many parks created in post-war years, divided into areas where tree vegetation was actually absent (Moscow Victory ParkSeaside Park Victory)[40]. On the outskirts of the city, forests remained from the southern subzone taigaYuntolovsky forest cottageRzhevsky forest park, forest islands along Okhta rivers, Tallinn highway, between the river Neva and the railroad at Moscow[41].

There are  in the cityseven specially protected natural areas: three state nature reserves ("Yuntolovsky","Gladyshevsky","Northern coast of the Neva Bay”) and four natural monuments (“Duderhof Heights","Komarovsky coast","Strelna coast","Sergievka Park"). The master plan for the development of St. Petersburg plans the appearance of five more reserves and two natural monuments[42].

Environmental problems

Main article: Ecology of St. Petersburg

According to Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, in the environmental rating of large Russian cities for 2011 St. Petersburg took second place[43]. There are 21 automatic atmospheric air monitoring stations in the city[44]. Air emissions in 2009 amounted to 625.3 thousand tons. The amount of emissions of harmful substances per capita is 135.9 kg per year, per unit area - 434.5 tons per km². 91.9% of all emissions come from transport. In 2009, compared to the previous year, emissions from transport increased by 1%, from stationary sources - by 9.8%.[42].

The ecological state of the Neva River, the Neva Bay and the Gulf of Finland is unsatisfactory. Within the limits of the city, the Neva is polluted with industrial effluents; waste from hundreds of industrial enterprises is poured into it. Actively transported along the Neva oil products. More than 80 thousand tons of pollutants enter the river annually[45]. Every year, the St. Petersburg Committee for Natural Resources registers an average of more than forty oil spills in the Neva water area.[46]. In 2022, the Rospotrebnadzor of St. Petersburg recognized only two out of 24 beaches in the city as suitable for swimming.[47]. In 2009, 8 million m³ of municipal solid waste was generated in the city. Industry is a source of various production wastes, a significant part of which poses a serious danger to the environment. Waste of I-III classes until 2014 was brought for the disposal of toxic waste, products of chemical, medical, industrial enterprises at polygon "Krasny Bor" (30 km south of the city at Tosnensky district Leningrad region)[48].

In connection with the commissioning structures to protect St. Petersburg from floods the water exchange between the Neva Bay and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland decreased by 10-20%, which further increased the concentration nutrients  in the Neva Bay. The unfortunate choice of the release sites of the northern and southwestern treatment facilities and the high contamination of soils in some areas of the Neva Bay make their contribution. The concern is the beginning of a gradual waterlogging shallow parts of the Gulf of Finland between the city and the dam and related decay plant residue, which over time can lead to additional eutrophication of the reservoir and the exclusion from the water area of vast areas of the Neva Bay, in the soil of which, in addition, a significant amount of harmful compounds will be buried[49]. Problems may also arise in connection with the creation of new large alluvial territories in the water area of the Neva Bay from the side of Vasilyevsky Island. According to Roshydromet, this can create a risk of flooding in the city when the dam is closed due to the reduction in the time it takes to fill it[fifty].

According to the forecasts of the Research Center for the General Plan of St. Petersburg, by the middle of the 21st century, the city's climate may change from the current humid continental to nautical  with average temperatures in January from -5 to +2 °C. The closest similar region with maritime climate to St. Petersburg is v Denmark[51].


Main article: History of St. Petersburg

Prehistory, the founding of the city and the 18th century



The mouth of the Neva, early 18th century. Fragment of the Swedish "General map of the province of Ingermanland" in 1704[52]

The presence of a person on the territory of modern St. Petersburg can be traced from the time of the last melting of the glacier that covered this territory. Approximately 12 thousand years ago, the ice receded, and people came after it.[53]. About Slavs (Ilmen Slovenes and Krivichi) have been known since the 8th-9th centuries[source?]. They were doing slash-and-burn agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing and made armed raids on other peoples. At the beginning of the 9th century, these lands became part of Old Russian state, forming part of the territory Veliky Novgorod named Vodskaya Pyatina, the area on the right along the Neva was called Karelian land, on the left -  Izhora land. In the 8th-13th centuries, a waterway passed here the way "from the Varangians to the Greeks" of Scandinavia via Eastern Europe c781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Byzantium[54]. During this period Novgorod Republic was constantly at war with the Swedes. On July 15, 1240, at the confluence of the Izhora River with the Neva, battle  between the Novgorod militia under the command of prince Alexander Yaroslavich and the Swedish army. In 1300, the Swedes built a fortress at the confluence of the Okhta River with the Neva Landskrona, however, a year later, it was taken by a united squad of Novgorodians and local Karelians and razed to the ground. On the site of the former fortress for a long time there was a Novgorod marketplace "Neva mouth', that is, the market. In the 15th century, the Izhora land was composed of Novgorod Republic  was attached to Great Moscow principality. As a result of defeat in war with Sweden by Stolbovsky Peace of 1617 territories along the Neva River became part of Swedish Ingermanland, whose commercial and administrative center was the city of Nien near the fortress Nienschanz, built in 1611 on the site of Landskrona[55].

Result Northern War of 1700-1721 Neva river valley was recaptured from Sweden and became part of Russian Empire by Treaty of Nystadt dated August 30 (10 September1721. 16 (27) May 1703 at the mouth of the Neva, not far from Nien, the city of St. Petersburg was founded[54]. This day dates from the laying by Tsar Peter I Peter and Paul Fortress, the first building of the city, at hare island[56]. She was supposed to cover with gun fire fairways of the two largest branches of the river delta: the Neva and Big Nevki. In 1704, to protect the sea borders of Russia on the island of the Gulf of Finland Kotlin a fortress was founded Kronstadt. Peter I attached great strategic importance to the new city in providing a waterway from Russia to Western Europe[57].

In the first quarter of the 18th century, the name was written as San (k) t-Piter-Burkh. When the city appeared, a special act defining the name of the city was not adopted, however, in the letters of Peter I and the official newspaper Vedomosti, the name "San (k) t-Peter-Burkh" is almost always mentioned in accordance with the Dutch version (netherl. Sankt Pieter Burch - "City of St. Peter"). The spelling "St. Petersburg" was first recorded in the newspaper "Vedomosti" in July 1724[58].

With the beginning of the construction of St. Petersburg, the construction of stone buildings was prohibited throughout Russia, and all masons were sent to build a new city. Tsar Peter gave away plots of land to those close to him, as well as to wealthy people, under the obligation to build buildings of the following sizes on them: the nobles, who had from 700 to 1000 households, had to build houses with a facade size of at least 10 sazhens (21.3 m); owners of 500-700 yards built houses for eight sazhens (17.1 m), owners of 100-300 yards could build huts or wooden houses of any size[59]. In the first ten years of its existence, the main part was the City Island (modern Petrogradsky island), here were Gostiny DvorTrinity Church, many office buildings, craft settlements and military units. The first industrial enterprise was Admiralty shipyard, discovered in 1705 on Admiralty side  (left bank of the Neva), where   were built latergalley shipyardWinter and Summer Palace of Peter I c summer garden. In 1706, the Admiralty Hospital was opened in St.[60].

In 1712, Peter I issued a decree on the creation General plan of St. Petersburg. Since that time, they began to actively build up Vasilyevsky Island, city center elected, Vyborg side, construction of suburban palaces expanded PeterhofYekateringofOranienbaum. Since 1713, all persons serving the royal court had to settle in the new capital. In 1713 he moved to St. Petersburg Governing Senate and the city became the capital Russian Empire; from that moment on, the phrase “The sovereign is on a campaign” disappears from the documents, indicating that the king is outside the walls Moscow Kremlin. On March 17, 1719, an engineering school was opened in St. Petersburg (by decision of Peter I in 1723, the engineering classes of the Moscow School of the Pushkar Order were transferred to St. Petersburg along with all the teachers)[61]. In 1724,   was transferred from MoscowMint[62][55], in the Trubetskoy bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress. By 1725, the Smolny Yard, the Foundry Yard, water saw mills, brick, wax, powder, weapons, tapestry, leather and other factories, food enterprises were built. In the same year,  was foundedPetersburg Academy of Sciences, where since 1728 the first Russian newspaper "Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti»[63].

By the middle of the 18th century, fires and floods led many buildings built in the time of Peter the Great to a dilapidated state, and some were destroyed. So, in the summer of 1736 and 1737 there were two fires, the entire wooden Morskaya Sloboda and a significant part of the Admiralteysky Island burned out. In 1737, by decree of the Empress Anna Ioannovna created commission on St. Petersburg building  (headed the commission P. M. Eropkin). According to this plan, the idea of the three-beam development of St. Petersburg was approved from Admiralty, which became the compositional center, and the role of the main highway was assigned to Nevsky prospect. St. Petersburg has become one of the largest scientific centers in Russia. A number of educational institutions have been created: Smolny Institute for Noble MaidensImperial Academy of ArtsMining School, The main national school for teacher training and others. August 30 (10 September1756 decree issued to create the first in the country state theater. In 1762, the previous commission was replaced by commission on the stone structure of St. Petersburg and Moscow, which regulated the development of embankments of small rivers and canals, the formation of architectural ensembles of central squares. The construction of granite embankments of the Neva, Fontanka, and then other rivers and canals of the city center began. By the end of the 18th century, the population of the city amounted to 220 thousand people and overtook Moscow in numbers, more than 60 Orthodox and 15 non-Christian churches operated in it. According to the data for 1780, there were more than 1200 streets and lanes, 3.3 thousand houses, the entire central part was completely paved with cobblestones and covered with transverse boards[55][63]. After 1785, a body was created "in charge of the affairs of the all-estate urban population and formed through all-estate elections" -  city council[64].

Petersburg in the 19th century



Plan of St. Petersburg indicating state buildings, gardens, parks, a network of horse-drawn railways. 1887

Opened in 1809 Institute of Corps of Railway Engineers, in 1810 the higher engineering education was born, in the year founded in 1806 Main engineering school, founded in 1811 Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. 7 (19) November 1824 the most significant and destructive flood in the history of St. Petersburg occurred, the water rose 421 cm above the ordinary. As a result, according to various estimates, from 400 to 4,000 people died, material damage was estimated at many millions of rubles. 14 (26) December 1825 cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Senate Square failed coup attempt, the purpose of which was the abolition of autocracy. In the first half of the 19th century, the design of architectural ensembles was completed PalaceSenateAlexandrinskyMikhailovskaya area, Arrows of Vasilyevsky Island. They worked on their creation, as well as on other architectural monuments C. I. Rossi (Anichkov Palace (reconstruction), Yelagin Palacebuilding of the Senate and SynodMikhailovsky PalaceAlexandrinsky theater building), J. Quarenghi (Smolny Institute), A. D. Zakharov  (project for the development of Vasilyevsky Island 1803-1804,  Admiralty), J. Thomas de Thomon (exchange building with rostral columns), A. N. Voronikhin (Kazan Cathedral, home of the State Treasury), O. Montferrand (Alexander ColumnSaint Isaac's Cathedral) and many others[65]. By the mid-1830s, about 300 factories and plants were operating in St. Petersburg, by the mid-1870s, 25 banks, and by the end of the century, more than 500 enterprises. Large factories were built on the outskirts of St. Petersburg: PutilovskyObukhovskyBaltic. Industrial and residential areas are growing at Vyborg side, for NarvaMoscowNevsky outposts, a dense multi-storey building with numerous tenement houses in the city center. In 1800, the first steam engine was launched at the Admiralty Plants, in 1815 the first Russian steamship "Elizaveta" was launched, in 1843 on Alexandrovsky iron foundry  production of rolling stock for the railway began, and in 1845 the first domestic steam locomotive was produced[55]. An important event was the construction in 1836 of the first railway between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo. On August 18, 1851, the first train left St. Petersburg for Moscow, and soon communication between the two cities became regular. Built in 1837 Tsarskoselsky railway station, in the 1850s - NikolaevskyWarsawBaltic railway stations, and in 1870 - Finland Station. In 1885, the construction of the 32-kilometer-long  was completedsea channel and seaport cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Gutuevsky island. Since 1863, a water supply system has been laid in the central districts of the city for the water supply of the population, since 1876 - on Vasilyevsky Island, Petersburg and the Vyborg sides. In 1882, the first city telephone exchange appeared, and since 1897, on Erickson plant production of telephone sets has begun. Petersburg appeared later than in other cities of the Russian Empire tram. Opened in 1839 Pulkovo Observatory, in 1845 — Russian Geographical Society. By the mid-1890s, more than twenty higher educational institutions operated in the city.[64].

Census 1897 the population of the city was 1,265,000 inhabitants, and by the beginning World War I  exceeded 2 million (3rd in Europe behind London and Paris). Result Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, whose beginning is  Bloody Sunday January 9, was the creation of the first in the history of Russia parliament — State Duma. By 1913, the volume of industrial production in St. Petersburg reached 632 million rubles, 242.6 thousand people were employed at 1012 enterprises. The capital provided 12% of Russia's industrial output, including 70% of electrical products, 50% of chemical products, 25% of machinery, and 17% of textiles. There were 567 banks operating in the city. The energy supply of the capital's industry was provided by 294 electrical installations and three thermal power plants. By 1914, about 40 thousand students were studying in 60 higher educational institutions of St. Petersburg.[55].


Panorama of St. Petersburg from 13 frames, taken from the Admiralty tower. 1861

Early 20th century and renaming

World War I  strongly influenced the fate of St. Petersburg. In August 1914, on the wave of anti-German sentiments, by decree of Nicholas II, the city was renamed Petrograd. At the same time, the meaning of the name of the city changed: it began to be called not in honor of the saint, but in honor of its founder[66]. By 1917, there were supply problems, and queues became common. Unrest February 23-27 (March 121917  and other events February Revolution  ended with the abdication of the emperor Nicholas II, the fall of the monarchy and the formation Provisional Government. the 25th of October (November 71917 during October socialist revolution power in the city passed into the hands of Bolshevikscreated Russian Soviet Republic with its capital in Petrograd. During the Civil War, due to the proximity of the front with the German army[67] government V. I. Lenin moved to Moscow, city lost the status of the capital March 5, 1918.

January 26, 1924, after the death of V. I. Lenin,  II All-Union Congress of Soviets USSR granted the request of the Petrograd Soviet and renamed Petrograd to Leningrad by its decree[68].

Soviet period


After the revolutionary events of 1917-1919, the population of the city decreased, by 1920 it was only 722 thousand people[69]. About 300,000 people were resettled from the workers' suburbs to the central regions. In 1919, a council was created to regulate the plan for Petrograd and its outskirts. In 1923, housing construction began in the city (Zhilmassivov). Improved in the 1930s Elagin and Krestovsky Islands  with access to the Gulf of Finland. September 23, 1924 happened second largest flood in the entire history of the city, the water has risen 380 cm above the ordinary. In 1931, the two largest cities RSFSR — Moscow (June 16)[70] i Leningrad (December 3)[71] were separated into separate administrative units - cities of republican subordination of the RSFSR. In 1933, construction began on the western tip of Krestovsky Island S. M. Kirov Stadium. Developed in 1935-1937 the first general plan of Leningrad, which provided for development in a southerly direction with borders in the area Pulkovo Heights. The center was to be the square at the intersection International Avenue and Central arc line (now Moscow area) c House of Soviets and other administrative buildings. By 1939, a new version of the master plan was developed, which was never approved, but in accordance with it, the construction of residential areas began on Malaya OkhtaIvanovskaya street, in Avtove i on International Avenue[72]. Built around the city palaces of culture, by the mid-1930s they were available in all industrial areas. In 1932, the first Leningrad Pulkovo airport was opened. On December 1, 1934, the victim was First Secretary of the Leningrad Regional Committee and City Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, member Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks S. M. Kirov. This event will mark the beginning ofKirov stream» and Great terror, it is replaced by A. A. Zhdanov.

Main article: Leningrad blockade

The heroism and resilience of Leningraders manifested itself during Great Patriotic War. On September 8, 1941, the enemy reached Lake Ladoga, captured Shlisselburg, taking control of the source of the Neva, and blockaded Leningrad from land. This day is considered to be the beginning of the blockade of the city by troops Hitler's Germany from the south and Finland from the north. For almost 900 days and nights, under conditions of a complete blockade, the inhabitants not only held the city, but also rendered great assistance to the front. During the years of the blockade, according to various sources, from 600 thousand to 1.5 million people died.[73]. So, on Nuremberg Trials  figured the number of 632 thousand people. Only 3% of them died from bombing and shelling; the remaining 97% starved to death. On the other hand, in the encyclopedia "The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945", published in military publishing house of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in 2011-2015, these figures were found to be significantly underestimated, since "unidentified blockade runners who died within the city, and Leningraders who died of starvation during the evacuation" were not taken into account. Result counter attack Leningradsky and Volkhov fronts 18 January 1943 the blockade ring was broken, but only on January 27, 1944 the blockade was completely lifted. After its removal, only 560 thousand inhabitants remained in Leningrad.[74].

Immediately after these events, the restoration of the city began. In September 1945, the academic year began and the concert season opened in the Great Hall of the Philharmonic. In 1950, the Kirov Stadium was put into operation. In 1951, a new general plan for the development of Leningrad was adopted, according to which it was proposed to develop the territory of the city around the historical center in all directions approximately equally. In the 1950s, new architectural ensembles were created: Lenin SquareKalinin SquareKomsomolskaya Square; Moskovsky Prospect got its final architectural look, Engels AvenueProspect StachekSredneokhtinsky prospectPrimorsky prospect. In 1951, the first  was launchedairport terminal in Pulkovo  (new building built in 1973). On November 15, 1955, the first stage was put into operation Leningrad metro. In 1957, the tradition of a midday cannon shot from the Naryshkin bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress (interrupted in 1934) was resumed, and on Field of Mars the country's first official lit Eternal flame. Same year from shipyards Shipyard named after A. Marty world's first launched nuclear icebreaker "Lenin", and in 1962 on Kirov plant release started tractors "Kirovets". Opened in 1960 Memorial to the Victims of the Siege at the Piskarevsky Cemetery and completed the construction of the new building Finland Station. In 1962 on Aptekarsky Island erected 316 meter TV tower and built new television center. With the construction of several large house-building factories in the early 1960s, mass development of the city began Khrushchev houses, and since the 1970sship-houses»[72]. On May 6, 1965, the city of Leningrad was awarded the title Hero City  (named so for the first time in order Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of the USSR I. V. Stalin dated May 1, 1945[75]). In 1966, the last Soviet master plan for Leningrad was approved. In accordance with it, in the 1960s, mass development of the western part of Vasilyevsky Island began in the alluvial territories, along Novoizmailovsky prospectYuri Gagarin Avenueavenue Cosmonauts. Become new major residential areas KupchinoAvtovoUlyankaDachnoeCitizenPolustrovoOhta. By the anniversary of October, in 1967 built Yubileiny Sports Palace and Grand Concert Hall "Oktyabrsky". Built up in the 1970s UritskPine GladeHappy Village, area north of Murinsky creek, territory of the former Commandant airfield, southern part of Kupchyna, Shuvalovo and lakesSouthwestRzhevka and Gunpowder. In 1979, the construction of a dam began in the Gulf of Finland, which protected the city from floods. In 1982 in Harbors built on Vasilyevsky Island Maritime Station. In 1988, the 5 millionth resident of Leningrad was born. 1990 historic city center included in list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites[72][76].

post-soviet period


1991, according to the results of the referendum, 54% of citizens voted for the return of the original name of the city of St. Petersburg. September 6, 1991 by decree Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR it was returned[77], and on April 21, 1992, entered in the Constitution of the RSFSR by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation[78]. On December 25, 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, adopted at a popular vote, came into force, which confirmed the name of St. Petersburg. June 12, 1991 Anatoly Sobchak  was elected mayor of the city, on March 13, 1996, executive power was transferred to the administration of St. Petersburg, which is formed by  Governor of St. Petersburgthe office of mayor was abolished.

In 1993, as part of the All-Russian referendum on April 25 in St. Petersburg, an additional question was raised about its republican status, for which 75% of the inhabitants voted - however, St. Petersburg never received republican status[79].

An important event was Goodwill Games 1994 . B accident 1995 on the subway section between stations "Lesnaya" and "Square of Courage» train traffic was stopped (resumed in 2004). In 1991-2007, many monuments were erected, restored and restored Konstantinovsky PalaceChurch of the Savior on Blood and many others. For the first time on May 25, 1991, after a long break, a church service was held at Kazan Cathedral. cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_ was built in 2000Ice Palace, in which   passed in the same yearIce Hockey World Championship. Built in 1998-2011 ring road around St. Petersburg[80]. May 27 - June 1, 2003 was celebrated 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg. December 15, 2004 open Big Obukhovsky bridge  (known as "Cable Bridge")[81]. In 2005, the City Legislature passed a new master plan of St. Petersburg, which determined the future development of the city until 2025[82][83].

An annual economic summit has been held since 1997 St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, an important international economic and political event, unofficially called "Russian Davos". B 2006 the forum has changed its format, becoming an event with the participation of the heads of the largest Russian and foreign companies, heads of state and political leaders, prime ministers, vice-premiers, ministers, governors (in 2017: more than 14 thousand people from more than than 143 countries)[84]. From 15 to 17 July 2006 at Konstantinovsky Palace c781905-5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_Strelna the summit took place «big eight»[85]. August 31, 2011 was appointed governor of St. Petersburg Georgy Poltavchenko[86]. September 8, 2019 Elected Governor Alexander Beglov  (interim as of October 3, 2018)[87][88].

In 2017, the Krestovsky stadium hosted group stage football matches and the final FIFA Confederations Cup. In 2018, the city hosted matches 2018 FIFA World Cup. The matches of the group stage, ⅛ finals, semi-finals and the match for third place were played here. All games played on stadium on Krestovsky Island[89].

Since 2017, in accordance with the decree of the President of Russia in St. Petersburg, the tradition of holding in Navy Day of the Main Naval Parade on the Neva[90]. On July 25, 2021, 39 ships, 7 submarines, 48 aircraft and over 4 thousand military personnel took part in the next parade[91].