Most of the anthropogenic transformations on Earth, which have brought humanity to a fatal point, are carried out by business and government, acting according to the rules of the capitalist economy (“money-commodity-money plus”).
Today, in the charters of firms, the main goal, according to the law, is "PROFIT DERIVATION". And there is no need to take on obligations “not to harm people's health”, “not to harm nature”, to take care of future generations, etc. A similar approach is taken by the authorities of different levels, who care most about filling the budget, investments and new jobs.
At the same time, very often, the goals are achieved due to the deterioration of the ecology of the environment and the health of the population.
We need to change this state of affairs before it is too late.
If we want to survive, the Economy must be Ecological and no other!
Sunset on the Black Sea. Gelendzhik
Climate in most areas temperate continental, on the Black Sea coast from Anapa to Tuapse — semi-dry mediterranean climate, south of Tuapse - wet subtropical. Altitudinal climatic zonality is expressed in the mountains. Throughout the year, sharp weather changes are typical - monthly, seasonal and long-term temperature fluctuations are significant. Foothills are characterized by hairdryers, contributing to the rapid melting of snow in the spring and the intensification of floods on the rivers. In the region of Anapa - Novorossiysk - Gelendzhik is typical boron with a wind speed of more than 15 m/s, sometimes more than 40 m/s (in December 1997, a bora was observed with a wind force of up to 47 m/s). The average number of days with bora is 21 (more than 40 in Novorossiysk), 18 of them in the cold half-year.
The average January temperature on the plain is −3… −5 °С, on the Black Sea coast 0…+6 °С, v Sochi +6 °C. The average July temperature is +22…+24 °C. The annual amount of precipitation is from 400 to 600 mm in the flat part, up to 3242 mm or more in the mountainous part. The edge is flooded every spring floods. In general, the region is characterized by hot summers and mild winters.
Main article: Rivers of the Krasnodar Territory
The main river of the Krasnodar Territory - Kuban, which receives many tributaries on the left (Urup, Laba, White etc.), to regulate the flow of which was builtKrasnodar reservoir. The whole region is often named after her, calling it simply Kuban. The rivers of the Azov Sea basin have a flat character, the largest of them are Her, Beisug, Kirpili. The rivers of the Black Sea coast are small, the largest of them is Mzymta.
There are many small karst lakes on the territory of the region, on Taman Peninsula and coast Sea of Azov - estuary lakes. The largest lake is located on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory North Caucasus — Abrau.
The main part of the soil cover of the steppe zone of the region is Ciscaucasian carbonate and leached chernozems. Taman Peninsula is occupied by chestnut, Western Ciscaucasian bog soils. In the mountains there are mountain-forest brown and sod-calcareous soils, in the highlands - mountain-meadow soils.
The total land area of the Krasnodar Territory is 7.5 million hectares, of which 3.9 million hectares are arable land. This is the main arable fund of the region, characterized by high fertility.
Part of the territory of the region (to the mountain ranges and the Black Sea coast south of Anapa) is occupied by steppes. Among the wealth of the Kuban forest occupies an important place, as it is of great environmental importance and is the main source of valuable wood species Russia. Forests of the Kuban occupy 22.3% of the entire territory of the region, of which more than 1.5 million hectares are covered with forests. The forest fund is dominated by hardwoods - 85.1%, of which 29.2% are mature stands. The main forest-forming species is oak, coniferous plantations account for 4.8%. Of industrial importance oak and beech arrays (broadleaf forests) occupy, respectively, 49 and 19% of the area of all forests. Also in the region grow dark coniferous mountain (spruce, fir) forests, subalpine and alpine meadows. Of great interest is the flora of the coast. Thus, juniper woodlands (often with an admixture of pistachio tuliposus) are of particular value. They are distributed from Anapa to the mouth of the Mezyb River (beyond Gelendzhik) and serve as a haven for the ancient Mediterranean flora. Main Views — juniper high, juniper smelly, pistachio pistachio, Etruscan honeysuckle.
There are 86 species on the territory of the region mammals, 20 — reptiles, over 300 — birds, 11 kinds amphibians, with a significant number of animals listed in Red Book of Russia (11 mammals, 24 birds, 2 amphibians, 3 reptiles). Among them there are such rare species as polecat-dressing, Caucasian otter, golden eagle, snake-eater, loaf, bustard, spoonbill, burial ground, steppe eagle, white-tailed eagle, curly and pink pelicans, falcon peregrine falcon, osprey, merlin, little bustard, caucasian black grouse and others[ten]. B Soviet time acclimatized raccoon[eleven] and muskrat.
Main article: History of the Krasnodar Territory
The territories of the present Krasnodar Territory were extensively populated for a long time Circassians (Circassians) and Abaza who traded actively with Genoese and the Greeks, which contributed to the active development of crafts among them. Greek philosophers actively wrote about the local peoples in their treatises, one of them was Strabo, who mentioned back in the 4th-6th millennium BC. e. zikhov and Meotians.
The Black Sea region was occupied by a number of Circassian tribes: Shapsugs, Natukhians, Hetuks, Ubykhs, hegaiki. One of the large settlements that have survived to this day are: Tuapse (Tluapse - between two rivers), was inhabited by Shapsugs, Sochi (Shaache), predominantly settled by the Ubykhs, Gelendzhik (Khyl'ezhy), a large village of Natukhians who were actively engaged in trade with the Ottomans and Greeks. Dzhubga (Zhyubgu) was also inhabited by Shapsugs, Anapa (lanape), which means the edge of the table, was probably named because of the rounded bay of Anapa, was inhabited by Natukhai, Khegayks, Khetuks.
Also Black Sea Circassians carried out active gardening, created Circassian gardens with special varieties of fruits and berries that tolerated the local climate well. The gardens spread over vast areas. Trees could bear fruit for many decades, which provided additional food. After the Caucasian War, these gardens were partially cut down, partially abandoned.
In the XIII century, the tribes of the Adyghes, who inhabited the present Krasnodar Territory, Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria, were united into one state by the leader of all princely families of 12 tribes of the Adyghes, Knyaz Inal (Inal Nehu). Circassia led active political cooperation with the Russian Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire. The population was about 2.5 million, and consisted mainly of Circassians and Abaz.
Circassia existed until the middle of the 19th century. Conducted an active foreign policy with neighboring states. Strong friendly relations were with the Russian Tsardom after the marriage of the prince's daughter Temryuk Mary by Ivan IV the Terrible. Following the results of the Caucasian War, the territories became part of the Russian Empire. Most of the population, about 2-2.8 million, were resettled in the Ottoman Empire, the rest were provided with flat territories.
Do October revolution 1917, most of the territory of the modern Krasnodar Territory was occupied by Kuban region, formed in 1860 from Black Sea Cossack Army, western Caucasian linear Cossack army. The Kuban region was the territory Kuban Cossack army. In 1900, the population of the region was about 2 million people. In 1913, according to the gross grain harvest Kuban region came in 2nd place in Russia, in the production of marketable bread - in 1st place. The region actively developed the industry for processing agricultural products and chemical industry (large joint-stock companies were created), railway construction was underway.
According to the results of the 1926 census in the USSR, the two largest nationalities in the territory North Caucasus Territory were Russians (46.2%) and Ukrainians (37.4%). And the national composition of the Kuban (Kuban District) according to census of the USSR in 1926: Ukrainians (62.2%) and Russians (33.8%).
September 13, 1937 by the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR Azov-Black Sea Territory was divided into Krasnodar Territory with the center in Krasnodar and Rostov region centered in Rostov-on-Don. On January 15, 1938, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved the creation of these regions[fourteen]. Six months later, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR confirmed this decision.[fifteen].
In 1937-1990, the Krasnodar Territory included Adyghe Autonomous Region.
Main article: The population of the Krasnodar Territory
The population of the region according to Rosstat is 5,687,378 person. (2022). Kray ranks 3rd among entities Russian Federation by number of inhabitants - after Moscow and Moscow region. Population density - 75.34 people / km2 (2022). Urban population - 55.24 % (2020). The level of urbanization is lower than the national average (75.06 %).
December 1, 2021 at that time the governor of the region Veniamin Kondratiev stated that, allegedly, according to preliminary data of the All-Russian Population Census 2020-2021 7 million 130 thousand people live in the region[eighteen].
The national composition of the Krasnodar Territory according to the census 2002:
Russians4436.3 (86.6%) 4522.9 (88.3%)
Armenians274.6 (5.4%)281.7 (5.5%)
Ukrainians131.8 (2.6%)83.7 (1.6%)
Greeks26.5 (0.5%)22.6 (0.4%)